Sunday, March 23, 2008

Understanding All About Sofa.

When you shop for new sofas and chairs, this is major decision for the comfort of the family.It can be a tough choice given the range available; but it can be also just a delightful shopping experience.So just a piece of advise,please take some time to think through for the best option.Remember it's for you and your home, so before you buy consider if it meet your lifestyle and budget.It is a crucial choice's you want to find a comfortable piece that will last for long time in the house.Not to forget that it has to be in a style and in the color you like for some time.But ,what really makes a chair or sofa comfortable?

This article will help you look at types of upholstery and how each pieces or components add to or detract from the final style,look and durability of the sofas.Many improvements have been developed over the years in sofa manufacturing and with the excellent result of comfortable,style and durability.Let us guide you through a few principles in your choice for a sofa or chairs.

There are two main types of upholstered furniture :

  • The Fully Upholstered furniture

These pieces have upholstery all over the furniture's, as its name implies.Some decorative touches may not be upholstered,but the bulk of the sofa or chair is covered.

  • Partially Upholstered Furniture

Generally,the seat area is upholstered ,but the bulk of frame exposed and decorative as well as functional .The frame might be made of wood,metal,wicker or a plastic.

Apart from these categories,we also have what we call Dual Purpose Furniture.Theses are motion furniture or stationary furniture which includes sleeper sofas and recliners.Now, which is better? Well ,it all boils down on your personnel preference and needs from a particular piece of furniture.

Now,let us take a quick look at how sofas and chairs are constructed and made.


The frame could be made of wood and for a type of wood uses,well that depends on the manufacturer.The quality sofas in the market could either be made from Plywood Frame or a Kiln-dried Hardwood Frame.Some manufacturers will use only one type of wood for their frames.And they are likely to claim that their way is the strongest.Plywood ,one of the earliest forms of engineered wood and as the name implies is various pieces of wood glued together with adhesives.Tradition-wise ,kiln dried hardwood was the standard; however ,with the modern adhesives technology,some plywood can be very strong and durable too.Note that these are generic terms and it is not a question so much on whether Kiln-dried Hardwood or Plywood is better,but on the quality of wood used and the method of construction ;especially the joint of the frames.The joint tend to be the weakest link of the whole frame and they then to determine if the sofa is sturdy enough for robust young kids jumping on it or for the boisterous group of teenagers or adults watching a football match.

Remember that the frame is completely covered in many styles of sofas and chairs.And if you have any doubts about the sofa,you should ask which type of wood is used in the frame .With high quality Plywood,this would be as durable as would kiln-dried hardwood laminates.

Reliable and long established sofas manufacturers with proven years of experience will be a good bet is prudent to note that in low priced sofas,one of the areas of cost reduction is the frame hidden from the view.

Frame-wise ,the quality of a sofas frame should be viewed from three consideration :

  • First is the Engineering or Design,it determines the strength and reliability of the piece.It is a said that the best design s have frames that are shape and form of the wood is not artificially stretch too much,such that in due course of time it will try and revert to its natural shape.The foam and batting simply pad and fits the frame and the whole harmony of the composite materials is achieved.

  • Second is the Proper Proportions.With proportioning,this affects how easy it is to get in and out of the sofa or chair.It is a design skill,for it dictates not only how comfortable a person is in the finish product but how easier it is to get up from it without putting undue strain on certain parts of your anatomy!A shallow and more upright pitch make it easier for people to stand up after sitting on the sofa.

  • Third is the types of Joint or fasteners.These are important components of sofas and chairs since they will have to withstand a lot of stress.The strongest Joint/fastener is one that is double-doweled and has a corner block which is both glued and screwed into the joint .The back legs; sometimes forming as part of the frame needs to very well attached too.


Deck is the bottom of the seating area and is built in many different ways.These are placed before cushions are put on or attached.

This is a foundation which helps build a level of support and comfort.When it is not done well,even the best cushions will feel uncomfortable within a short time.The deck of a sofa or chair is similar to a box springs for your mattress.And the most comfortable,longest lasting sofas build the deck with with springs that covers the largest area of the upholstery.Hence ,it should therefore be more comfortable and stand the longest amount of time and lengthens the life span of cushions.


Sheet of polypropylene stapled to it will give the padding some shaping and support-otherwise the padding could simply slip in between the frame pieces.Some layers of polyurethane foam are used for the arms and possibly some bathing around some outer areas of the frame.


Fabrics are seen as the final dressing up of the upholstery.In interior decoration ,fabrics are the crowning glory that touch and dress up the room

In the case of a sofa or chairs, the quality and design of the fabrics can double or even triple its price range.The prices for the fabrics can run for just a few dollars to hundred of dollars per meter.Good upholstery is when as few seams as possible are used making the sofa look smooth and clean.Sometimes wastage's, of the material cannot be avoided in making sure that its pattern or design in the fabric aligns correctly and will look nice on the finished sofa.You can look at each fabrics and can tell the cost of a sofa from it.Note here, that the natural fabrics are not as durable as man-made fabrics.

One advantage of fabrics is that it present you with a bigger range of color options;be it an intricate print design or a classic embossed single color usually comes in a fibre mix for strength and texture,and thoroughly tested for durability.Pick a fabric that will suit your life style.

Before you buy the sofa,ask for a fabric sample or a cutting that you can take home on approval,so you can see the material under lights in your room and with other pieces.If you're adventurous with colors;consider buying a neutral sofa and embellishing it with colorful cushions scattered on it.

Most fabric upholstery comes with some fabric protection plans,but do ask and confirm it with the retailers.Protection will reduce stains from liquids resulting in easier care and maintenance . However do take note that spillage should be cleaned up as soon as possible.When choosing the fabric suited for you needs in a sofa or chairs and how to care for it.

Wool Fibre

Wool is an ideal upholstery fibre because it is soft and comfortable.It takes dyes well and normally does not fade noticeably.It is flameproof.Because of the great variety of yarn, wool can be woven into many different fabrics.These are wool "flat-woven" so that it makes a close-textured,very strong repp (a practically indestructible corded cloth with the rib running across the width) or tweed.They are "flat" and usually smooth in texture with designs in large or small.

Care:Wool upholstery covers are best dry-cleaned.Spots and stains can be removed with a dry-cleaner or tepid soapy water or a special shampoo.Care instructions are usually supplied; if not, ask them and keep them for future reference.


Silk is a luxury fabric for upholstery and very impractical.Some antique chairs and chaise lounges traditionally demand silk upholstery but is not recommended for normal use.Silk is usually closely woven but traditionally was also used for the richest velvets and brocades.It is and has been from time memorial expensive indeed.

Care :Dry-clean.possibly some stains could be removed with tepid soapy water but test first, again in an obtrusive place and watch carefully whether the surfaces of the fabric remains unchanged when dried.


Cotton is used a great deal for upholstery ,particularly for loose covers.But it is important to choose solid, good-quality cotton fabrics.Cotton takes dyes and prints well,is easy to wash and has been comparatively cheap before but prices are now increasing .when choosing cotton avoid fabrics that have been heavily "dressed" to give an impression of better quality.The test is to rub the material between your thumb and forefinger.If white powder appears,there is excessive dressing.

Care :The beauty of most cotton is that it can be either washed or dry-cleaned.The velvets etc....are more safely dry-cleaned.


Linen fibres are much firmer and more lustrous and stronger than cotton ones.but they also tend to crease more easily.Linen can be woven in the same ways as cotton and is very often found mixer.

Care : washable or dry-cleanable. keep follow any instructions.


Rayon was the first synthetic fibre (has their own qualities and properties) and is still probably the most widely used.One of its great advantages is it cheapness,compare with the eve rising prices of natural fibres.It is about half the cost of other synthetic.Within the last ten years, rayon has been greatly improved with more "body" and better abrasion-Resistance.Rayon is used by itself but probably more often in blends with wool, cotton and other synthetic.It can be treated in all ways ; flat-woven to resemble close repps,tweeds or brocades or used for pile fabrics-rayon-velvets and figured rayon -brocades -giving a grand effect in a reasonable price range.In fact,this is the way to think of rayon: its use in (or in addition to) a fabric takes the price down as well as the wear.This is often acceptable when you want a cheaper or shorter-lived piece of upholstery rather than one to last your life time.

Care :Rayon is not always washable.Unless so described , it is better to dry-clean it and use dry-cleaning preparations to get out stains,spills etc.Test first.Keep and follow instruction given by manufacturer.


A percentage of nylon is generally used to give additional toughness and abrasion-resistance to other fibres; wool especially.Another use for nylon in upholstery is for stretch covers.These were invented for nylon ,because it has a high degree of elasticity and is given a two -way stretch when knitted.It can be knitted into plain or textured fabrics in one or more colors.It is eminently washable.The one snag is finding the ready-made to fit chair in the color / pattern you like.

Care : On its own,nylon can be washed.In blend, follow instructions.


The acrylic family of fibres has not been used for woven fabrics knitted fabrics may become more common as the rising prices of other fibres make acrylics comparatively cheaper but one acrylic, dralon, has entirely transformed and now dominates, "pile" fabrics, particularly velvet. Dralon is tough,washable, almost dog-cat and child-proof. Dralon is widely used as an upholstery fabric an sofas and chairs.

Care :Remove stains and keep clean by scrubbing with mild detergent or upholstery shampoo.

Melded fabric

These are synthetic but instead of bring made into fibres and woven, The fabric is produced as a continuous sheet one such nylon, cambrelle is already used for loose covers.

Blended Fabric

It is possible to combine the qualities of natural fibres and synthetics at an acceptable price by blending them.

Wool Blends :When wool is combined with synthetics, such as nylon or acrylics, it often becomes less expensive, while gaining qualities of durability and increased resilience.

Cotton and Lines Blends :It is mixture of cotton and linen ideal for loose covers.

Other Blends: Synthetic (particularly rayon and to some extent nylon and acrylic) are put into blends with wool or cotton to give the fabric easier cleaning qualities, bring down the price and or give better abrasion resistance. These blends very widely manufacturer or retailer should provide full details of the blend and how to care for it.


A great deal of "leather" upholstery on sale today is synthetic. The earlier synthetic leather is "leather cloth". A cotton fabric coated with nitro-cellulose which looked and smelt horrible, went hard, cracked and peeled has put people off imitation leather. This has completely changed , the best of the products available now has a natural look and wears well. Enormously popular now in the market (used to be considered as luxury) is leather sofa or chairs. Now new technique have been developed to make it much more affordable. Now, technology has enabled the achievement of all types of finish. Leather is a natural product and with corrected grain. I rather doing some cover up, the markings will differ from piece to piece and dyeing or dyes will remove most of the flaws. It comes in different styles and even plain styles will give a more contemporary feel. In terms of maintenance, leather is easy to look after with slightly damp cloth, it can easily remove dust, do keep it way from direct sunlight , as it can dry out and just like fabric it is not immune to the fading effects of sunlight.

Information below will enlighten you on the benefits of leather and synthetic leather and how to look after then in maintenance and cleaning.

Natural Hides.

All hide are first treated in some process to make it usable. Most of it has the surface treated to improve or change the color, to give it extra softness and resistance to staining. This gives the leather a slight shine. Some leather furniture uses "natural" leather which do not have the protective surface treatment. Leather needs "feeding" so it should be treated regularly with a proprietary brand of hide food, applied with a slightly damp cloth. This cleans the leather, helps keep it supple and conceals scratch marks which are difficult to avoid. Leather is almost unbeatable for upholstery. It is tough, wears well, look good weather it is new or shabby. Is comfortable and has that memorable leather smell. Its only disadvantages is its price, which is high.

CARE :Natural leather-wipe over with a clean,dry, soft clothes. If something more necessary , rub very carefully with a clean cloth well wrung out in cold water. Never use a detergent or soap on this leather. Obviously with no surface protection, it stains irremediably very easily.

Clean with soft cloth wrung out in cold or lukewarm water. Stubborn marks can be rubbed lightly using lukewarm soapy water. Avoid detergents, spirit, tea, coffee all stain leather, showing up as a light patch. Grease also stains it, showing up as a dark patch. Clean any spills immediately to prevent staining.


Suede is more expensive than plain leather,needing even greater care if it is to stay looking good.(the way suede coats and shoes wear out gives one an idea of what to expect from suede upholstery).there are now ways oftreating the surface of suede to protect it from water and grease marks : you should make sure that any suede furniture you buy has this kind of protection if you want it to last.

Care: Remove stains and keep clean by scrubing with mild detergent or upholstery shampoo.

Synthectic Leather

Pvc Fabrics.

Most synthethic leather for upholstery ( car seat especially)was made from pvc (polvinyl Choliride). Pvc is a plastic fabric squeezed out in a solid sheet.Grain ,pattern and color are embossed and printed on the top to the surface .Sometimes pvc is used on its own, more often now a thinner layer is bonded on to a knitted fabric,Pvc is extremely tough and har wearing.


An improved ,but slightly less tough fabric is Expanded Vinyl>this is the same old PVC but in the form of foam with a thin top skin, usually supported by knitted cloth.It feels softer, and it can be grained ,dyed ,textured and patterned.It simulates leather quite convincingly ,except that it hasn't the same porosity, which is why it is sticky and rather uncomfortable to sit on in hot weather which is rather a drawback.

Care :see below,same as in Polyurethane Fabrics.

Synthetic Polyurethane Fabrics.

The latest simulated leathers are made from sheets of polyurethane bonded on to fabric backings.These have a feel and appearance which is very close to leather,plus some porosity.They feel cool in summer and warm in winter and are very soft and fine.They allow designers great freedom in styling, although the life-span of the earliest types that were used was short,particularly when they were to cover button-back furniture.

It is difficult to tell PVC and Polyurethane leathers apart.I fact , to bring down the price of furniture, manufacturers sometimes use the more expensive Polyurethane leathers on the parts of the chair/sofa you see and feel most and PVC elsewhere.

Care : Both fabrics need to be wiped clean weekly with a cloth just dampened in mildly soapy water,dried carefully and buffed up.Stain can be absorbed by PVC ,so it is important to deal with them as they occur,especially ball-point ink.Use a proprietary ball-point ink remover.Get instructions from manufacturer and follow the carefully.


This may not be the important thing in your mind,but the filling in your choice upholstery gives some level and needs for maintenance.


With foam filling ,you will feel firm and supportive and gives a more tailored appearance .With use over the years ,the foam will compact and lose its volume a little but this process is much slower when a high resilience foam is used in the manufacturing.In term of cushioning,we are also talking about the density of the foam used.It could be high resiliency or regular polyurethane foam.Always look for high density.A higher density means a greater weight and one that Will last longer.Higher resilient foam will last even longer but expect to pay a little bit more for it.


This will have a softer look and feel for your sofa.In maintaining comfort and wear ,just plump and turn cushions occasionally.


This upholstery will give a more relaxed ,casual look and a "squishier" feel for your sofa.It is ideal if you like curling up on the sofa.You will need to plump up cushions daily.



You have religiously learned the parts and how upholstery is being constructed and made .Now , we are moving on to how these parts will meet your needs in the real picture-in the sitting position.


You should ask this questions-"how many people will be sitting in my sofa?".The choice you'll make will depend on the location of the sofa and your family lifestyle-does the whole family regularly watched movies or sports at home together?Decode what size sofa you really need.Remember to make note of the width and height that will fit into your home,including door height and width.

Try to envisage proportion here-sofas can range 2,3 or more sizes to choose from.Rule of thumb is that a large sofa will seat three average size adults comfortably.But with a cozy small sofa,it can accommodate two.And you can also consider having a compact or 'snuggler' sofas which provide an over sized chair for one person only.

Sofas are titled according to their size (width measurement), consider which one is going to be right for you.
GRAND = 21 cm+
MEDIUM = 175 - 190 cm
LARGE = 191 - 210 cm
SMALL = up to 174 cm
High backs and chairs may look best in rooms having higher ceiling as it fills up vertical spaces and adds balance .They also give mass and weight to the composition of your furniture.While some lower backs and wide chairs can give the ideas of comfortable lounging and is highly effective in an open-plan rooms emphasizing a sense of spaciousness.This can be enhanced with modular furniture and helpful in small spaces as it creates flexibility.Think flexibility as you repositioned them more easily.It should be a sofa that can make a big difference to the amount of the seating capacity and an ease of access to a roam.Finding new one that suits you and your family,one that you want to last a daunting prospect,but it doesn't have to be.Here are some tips to help you.


The essence of a multi-purpose living room is that it should be able to accommodate any number of activities and each piece of furniture should make a positive contribution to this .Not only should it fulfill its specific function,but it should adapt easily to a variety of others.Keep the scheme as flexible as possible.The more potential uses you assign to any piece of furniture the better the end result ; to over-furnish is death to flexibility.

It should be conducive to conversation and relaxation and enhance the feeling of pleasant togetherness as the nucleus of a good living-room.This means chairs and sofas to suit different taste and purpose ; a sofa on which one can stretch out;a chair offering head and neck support with perhaps a foot-rest; a chair that is comfortable for needlework or reading .Think out all possible ways of sitting and relaxing before making a final choice.


Bear in mind that a color which you find stylish today may not be so fashionable or in keeping with your change of decor.So our advice it to pick a natural color highlighted with throws and pillows in brighter colors.Even better pick a pattern that will disguise stain like multi-colored design with classic everlasting pattern.


When it comes to sofas, one size does not to fit all.The depth of the seat and the angle of the back will influence how comfortable it feels.How do you know what depth is right for you?Let be your experience be your guide.If there 's sofa or chairs that you find particularly comfortable,measure the distance from the inside of your knee to the spot where your lower back hit the back of the sofa,then buy a sofa that has a similar dimensions.


A one seater sofa is not cost effective as a three seater sofa.One way to see the best value is to calculate coat per seat of the sofa.The best value be the sofa with the lowest cost per seat,everything else remaining the same.


Buy the best quality sofa you can afford .your purchase will be amortized across many years.Plus, it's usually cheaper to reupholster a good- quality sofa than to buy a new one of comparable quality .The best way to keep upholstered furniture looking is to ask yourself the right questions before you buy anything. The amount of wear you expect to inflict should be and indication of how tough and practical your furniture need be.


Regular care is the most important rule.What is quite a quick and simple matter to remove each week become difficult,often impossible,if left to accumulate over month

Considering ,the dirt factor for one thing ,the sofa would get dirty very quickly.With kids around,they have tendency to jump and would dirty the sofa very quickly.You could teach the children not to walk ,jump or play on it but it is much wiser to get a sofa than can withstand the stresses a kid would bring.Because eventually, you still have to clean the sofa.

Spring clean : This should only amount to washing or dry cleaning removable covers-whichever is appropriate for the fabrics.Feed the leather.

Accident : Deal with these straight away as they occur-stains get progressively harder to remove as time goes on.

Manufacturer instructions : The complexity of blends and synthetics and cleaners makes it very important to get these with the furniture,Keep them safely and allow them.



In a short time, dogs and cats can do more damage to a chair, sofa or cushion than human beings do in lifetime.It isn't just those cats who sharpen their claw; it is the grease and dirt of their coats, not to mention the shed hairs and their all-pervading scent, which seems to cling forever.

People Who perch

However politely they are perching , they are also causing interior damage to the arms and the base of your chairs or sofa.


Air the room thoroughly after it has been subjected to smoke.The adour can cling tenaciously , especially to fabric covered sofas.


Bright sunlight can fade fabrics, causing especially the blue and the reds to discolor, so draw blinds or curtains whenever this is possible.


Exposure to direct sunlight accelerates deterioration of the surface of the sofa.Dyed fabrics coverings will fade faster and leather will harden, craze and become brittle (similar to leather seats in an old car) In an extreme case, wooden frames can warp over a period of time.If possible, do not place your furniture to too close to the windows.


Upholstery placed under windows can be stained by condensation running down the window-pane and on to the fabrics.Similarly wind blown rain water can damage the fabrics of the sofas.So during the initial period, keep a lookout and observe, so that you can avoid damages and /or stains or you can re-think your setting layout.
Getting new furniture can be exciting......only when you have a lot of choice and you know how to collect your thoughts and heart into it.
Just remember, your sofa must suit both the modern and traditional theme of your interiors.It should be one with quality and value for your money.It should sit pretty in the room and not stick out like a sore thumb and be an eyesore in comparison to the rest of your decor.So shop well and enjoy your new sofa and chairs!

Tuesday, March 11, 2008

Magic Of Colour (part 5)


The walls of any room (with or without the ceiling) represent its largest single surface. They provide the background for all the other furnishing elements that are to be included, and wherever you choose to look, they are smack in your line of vision. Whatever kind of treatment you decide to use here, therefore, will dominate your finished scheme.

Because there are fewer practical than virtually any other surface (you don't walk on them or spill drinks on them), your range of appropriate decorative options is uniquely wide and varied. Select from the following types of wall finish:


The easiest, and usually the cheapest and quickest, transformation you can effect in any room is to paint it a different colour. But before you are seduced by any of the enormous number of shades on offer, however, you should familiarize yourself with the main types of paint on the market and decide which ones you want to use where.

However complex and technical any survey of paint types may at first appear; the basic differences between them are straightforward: in composition , every paint is either water or solvent-based (sometimes known as oil-based). If you're unsure of a particular tin, check the product information on the side. Broadly, these paints have certain characteristics:

1) Water-based paints (emulsions, acrylic gloss and some primers):
  • dry more quickly
  • smell less strong
  • hold colour better
  • can be washed off (and thinned out) with water
  • contain fewer toxic chemicals so are less harmful to the environment
  • are ideal for matt finishes
But they also:
  • wear less well
  • mark more easily
  • offer less flexibility for beginners when it comes to trying out decorative effects since they dry almost instantly.

2) Solvent-based paints (most gloss, eggshell and enamel finishes, plus undercoats and primers):

  • are extremely hard-wearing
  • can create a shiny finish
  • withstand higher levels of damp and moisture (in bathrooms, kitchens and utility rooms, for example)

But they also:

  • dry very slowly
  • have a strong chemical smell
  • hold colour less effectively (whites tend to yellow)
  • must be thinned out and removed with solvent such as white spirit.

Within these categories, the main differences between one kind of paint and another tend to involve either the effect they give when dry, their porosity (and therefore their resistance to water), or the durability of finish.

Vinyl matt emulsion
This is the conventional choice for walls and ceilings. Water-based, it is easy to apply, it covers well and the non-reflective finish helps to hide minor surface flaws. However, it also tends to mark fairly easily.

Vinyl silk emulsion
Also water-based, this paint has a slight sheen which makes it slightly more durable than vinyl matt and it is also easier to wipe clean. However, it is more likely to higlight surface lumps and bumps.

Solid Emulsion
Available in either vinyl silk or vinyl matt, this is a non-drip that is packaged in its own tray. Easy to use, it comes in a limited colour range.

Kitchen / bathroom emulsion
This paint contains fungicide to make it resistant to damp and condensation. It has a soft sheen finish.

One-coat emulsion
Although it is more expensive than standard emulsion,this paint offers better coverage. It dries to give a similar sheen to kitchen/ bathroom emulsion. If you are planning to apply a very light colour over a dark one, though , you may still need two coats.

An oil-based paint that offers a similar, but much more durable finish than that of vinyl silk, this is an ideal choice for woodwork. Some eggshell finishes are suitable for use on both walls and woodwork: use one of these when you want the two elements to match perfectly.

Satin finish
Similar to eggshell, this paint is easier t use and faster-drying.

Usually oil-based, this is the most durable finish of all, but many people find its high shine too hard, unsubtle and ouforgiving of even the smallest imperfections. Liquid gloss gives the smoothest finish, but the non-drip version is much easier to use.

This paint is used to seal bare, porous surfaces, such as plaster,wood or metal and it comes in either water or solvent-based versions

Thursday, March 6, 2008

Magic of Colour (part 4)


Creating a home involves much more than simply putting together a collection of stylish decorating schemes; it also means surrounding yourself with materials, fragrances and sounds taht soothe your senses and refresh spirits. Once you've decided on the dominant atmosphere you want for your environment, explore all the subtle, sensula touches you can add to reinforce it.


Making the best possible use of the texture in your rooms does not necessarily mean installing bare brick walls, fake fur rugs or satin sheets. Used skilfully, texture can add interest, depth and sensuality in a vast range of understated, yet very powerful ways. To strengthen a scheme based on natural materials and hues, look for wooden furniture that has been waxed and polished to a deep, satin-like patina, wool fabrics and carpets with a thick, knobbly weave and crisp, waffle-weave cotton, coarse linen and raw silk. Make shelves form chunky, weathered railway sleepres or other reclaimed wood and display pieces of sculptural driftwood and unusual stones together in groups.

For a cosier feeling, choose pile-weave fabrics like cotton velvet and chenille for your chairs and sofa, and drape them with cuddly blankets and throws. Cut up old sweaters to make tactile cushions (or turn them out yourself with jumbo needles or crochet hooks and buttery, soft wool) and place a furry rug beside your bed to tickle your toes. Add a touch of sensuality to formal rooms with finely figured silk and brocade trimmed with fringes and tassels that beg to be fondled, ornaments of burnished brass and polished silver, and mirror-finish mahogany or rosewood surfaces.